Discovered in 1982, the eubacteria kingdom is a class of microorganisms which form one of the 6 kingdoms into which the living world is categorized. It occurs on all surfaces, living and non-living, and hence is also called true bacteria. The organisms are prokaryotic cells without a nucleus. The kingdom is comprised of about 5000 species which have been found as yet.
Structure and shape of Eubacteria organisms
Eubacteria organisms are unicellular. As per their shape, they can be grouped into 3 different kinds, as listed below with examples:
- Shaped like a rod: Bacillus, lactobacillus, and pseudomonas.
- Oval or circular, or spherical shaped: Streptococcus, micrococcus, and sarcina.
- Comma or spiral shaped: Camphilovextor, vibrio, and triponema.
The structure of such bacteria is dependent on their type and shape. Typically, eubacteria is made up of solid cell wall within which all organelles are present. This wall consists of a sugar chain and amino acids.
The inner part of the cell wall is has a plasma membrane; some kinds of eubacteria have flagella which are attached to this membrane. Some kind of eubacteria also consist of a membrane which occurs outside the walls of the cell. Eubacteria with penicillin resistance contain a special substance in the cell wall which reacts with the antibiotic and neutralizes it.
The insides of the cell is full of cytoplasm which is made up of ribosomes, single cell chromosomes, and other organelles of a cell. The lack of a nucleus is their most important feature which allows them to be characterized as prokaryotes. Binary fission is the main source of reproduction in eubacteria. Some may reproduce via budding.
Classification of Eubacteria kingdom
Organisms belonging to the eubacteria kingdom can be grouped into 3 major phyla. The distinctive features of the species can be distinguished as listed below:
- Spirochetes phyla: This class of bacteria move around in a twisting manner with the help of flagella. A few species of this category can cause deadly illnesses.
- Cyanobacteria phyla: This class comprises of bacteria with chlorophyll pigment. They do not have flagella but can produce their own food. They occur in the ocean as well as on land.
- Proteotic bacteria phyla: This class of eubacteria move via gliding or by using their flagella. A majority of them are anaerobic. Some species can cause deadly illnesses while others are helpful.
Other important facts about the eubacteria kingdom
- Eubacteria are the most common organism on the planet and are found everywhere. They tend to grow and thrive rapidly.
- Due to the occurrence of chlorophyll, they are regarded as plants.
- They can be found in raw milk, sewage, raw meat, and the intestines. They can stay alive even in regions with extreme conditions, including those with volcanoes.
- Lactobacillus is a helpful bacteria which is used to make pickles and cheese. It is also good for the health of humans. Nitrogen fixing eubacteria has a role in the nitrogen fixation process.
- Eubacteria get their nutrition from sunlight and inorganic and organic matter.
- Bacillus anthracis, Clostridium botulinum, Escherichia coli, Borrelia burgdorferi, Clostridium perfringens, Helicobacter pylori, Clostridium tetani, and Tolypothrix are some examples of eubacteria kingdom.